理解式文法:平行結構-Part 2

作者:王復國老師

關聯連接詞與平行結構

關聯連接詞有: both… and 、 either… or 、 neither… nor 、 not only… but also 以及 not… but 等。由這些相關字組所連接的項目必須平行對等,否則即為錯誤用法。

k. I did that both to fulfill my dream and make a profit . (誤)
(我做那件事的目的一方面是為了實現我的夢想,一方面是為了賺錢。)

l. You can either call us or you can email us . (誤)
(你可以打電話給我們或寄電子郵件給我們。)

m. Neither his wealth nor position can satisfy him. (誤)
(不論是他的財富或地位都無法滿足他。)

n. Not only did I pay for the dinner , but also drove her home . (誤)
(我不但請她吃晚飯,還開車送她回家。)

o. I didn’t go not because of you but because the weather . (誤)
(我沒有去不是因為你,而是因為天氣。)

在 k. 句中 both 之後為不定詞結構 to fulfill my dream , and 之後卻只有動詞部分 make a profit ,二者不對等。 k. 句應改成:
k1. I did that both to fulfill my dream and to make a profit .

在 l. 句中 either 後只有動詞和受詞 call us ,但是 or 之後卻出現了完整句子(子句) you can email us ,故 l. 應改成:
l1. You can either call us or email us .

在 m. 句中 neither 之後為代名詞所有格加名詞 his wealth ,但是 nor 之後只有名詞 position ,明顯不對稱,後者應加上 his :
m1. Neither his wealth nor his position can satisfy him.

在 n. 句中 not only 引導的是一個子句 Not only did I pay for the dinner (注意,主詞與動詞必須倒裝), but also 之後卻是沒有主詞的結構 drove her home ,因此整句應改成:
n1. Not only did I pay for the dinner, but I also drove her home .

最後,在 o. 句中 not 之後為片語介系詞 because of 加上其受詞 you ,但是 but 之後卻只有 because 加上名詞 the weather (注意, because 實為從屬連接詞,應用來引導表原因、理由的從屬子句),故 o. 句應改成:
o1. I didn’t go not because of you but because of the weather .

以上兩節的討論中,我們針對的是與對等連接詞相關的平行結構。在下一節的討論中,我們還要介紹另外一類需要注意平行對稱的句子:比較句型。請看以下說明。

 

比較句型與平行結構

任何被拿來做比較的人、事、物在形式與意義上必須對稱,否則無法進行比較。例如:

p. The area of New Taipei City is larger than Taipei City . (誤)
(新北市的面積比台北市〔的面積〕大。)

q. We care not so much about how it is done as when . (誤)
(我們在意的主要不是這事怎麼做,而是什麼時候〔做〕。)

r. Compared to his office , my is rather small. (誤)
(跟他的辦公室相比,我的蠻小的。)

s. The shoes in this store are very different from the other store . (誤)
(這家店的鞋子和另外那一家〔的〕很不一樣。)

t. Like John , the school kicked out George. (誤)
(像約翰一樣,喬治被學校開除了。)

p. 句的錯誤在於拿 Taipei City 這個「城市」與 The area of New Taipei City 新北市的「面積」相比。 p. 句應改成:
p1. The area of New Taipei City is larger than that (= the area) of Taipei City .

q. 句錯在從屬連接詞 when 之後不當省略了主詞和動詞,也就是說,光是 when 並不能與 how it is done 相較,故 q. 句應改成:
q1. We care not so much about how it is done as when it is done .

r. 句的 my 為代名詞所有格,不能當名詞用,因此也無法跟前面的 his office 做比較,應改為所有代名詞 mine :
r1. Compared to his office, mine (= my office) is rather small.

s. 句拿鞋店 (the other store) 和鞋子 (The shoes) 相比也是錯誤,本句應改成:
s1. The shoes in this store are very different from the ones (= the shoes) in the other store .

t. 句中的 the school 和 John 被拿來相提並論,顯得非常荒謬,必須修改成:
t1. Like John, George was kicked out by the school.

最後,在結束本章的討論之前,讓我們來看一下幾個因不當省略而造成句子結構失衡的情況。

 

不當省略

由修辭的角度來看,經由省略 (ellipsis) 而讓一個句子變得較為精簡原是一件好事,但是如果因此而造成錯誤或語意不清就得不償失了。下面幾個例子就是犯了不當省略的錯誤:

u. I have and will continue to support the local team. (誤)
(我一直都〔支持〕而且會繼續支持本地的球隊。)

v. The thief was careless and caught by the police. (誤)
(那個小偷很不小心,被警察抓到。)

w. Toni already showed a strong interest and a great talent for writing when she was only ten. (誤)
(冬妮才十歲的時候就已經顯露出她對寫作的熱愛與極大的天賦。)

x. I saw a man and woman enter the shop. (誤)
(我看到一男一女進到店裡。)

y. If you come late in the morning or you leave early in the afternoon , they will cut your pay. (誤)
(如果你早上遲到,或者是〔如果〕你下午早退的話,他們會扣你的薪資。)

z. This report indicates that the inflation rate has fallen, the average income has increased , and that people are now more willing to spend their money . (誤)
(這份報告顯示通貨膨脹率已經下降、平均所得已經增加,而人們如今比較願意花錢。)

u. 句的錯誤是不當省略掉第一動詞(現在完成式)的過去分詞,使得整句話的意思不清楚,應改成:
u1. I have supported and will continue to support the local team.

v. 句的錯誤在於不當省略掉第二個 be 動詞 was 。雖然同樣為 be 動詞,但是第一個 was 是主動詞(連綴動詞),而第二個 was 為助動詞(幫助其後的 caught 形成被動式),因功能與第一個不同,故不可省略。 v. 句應改為:
v1. The thief was careless and was caught by the police.

w. 句中則不當地省略了一個介系詞。在 interest 之後應用介系詞 in ,與 talent 之後接的 for 不同,不可任意省略:
w1. Toni already showed a strong interest in and a great talent for writing when she was only ten.

x. 句中 woman 之前的不定冠詞 a 不可省略,否則會變成「一個男女人」,不知所云。故 x. 句應改成:
x1. I saw a man and a woman enter the shop.

在 y. 句中出現了兩個不對稱的從屬子句,因為在對等連接詞 or 之後應有的從屬連接詞 if 被省略掉了,應將之還原:
y1. If you come late in the morning or if you leave early in the afternoon, they will cut your pay.

z. 句之所以錯誤是因為從前後文看來, indicates 應該有三個對等的受詞子句,但是用來引導第二個受詞子句的從屬連接詞 that 卻被省略掉了。故 z. 句應改成:
z1. This report indicates that the inflation rate has fallen, that the average income has increased, and that people now are more willing to spend their money.

 

出處:登峰美語-理解式文法-文法與修辭篇 II

 

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理解式文法:平行結構-Part 2
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理解式文法:平行結構-Part 2
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依照英文的基本結構,理論上我們可以創造出無限的句子,但是在實際造句時,我們卻發現有許多「細節」問題無法用這幾條簡單的規則來規範,所謂的「平行」原則就是其中之一。
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貝塔語言
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