56. Please write a well-organized essay with at least 200 words to express your opinion on medical malpractice.
“Statistics show that approximately 195,000 people are killed every year by medical errors in the US. Between 15,000 and 19,000 malpractice suits are brought against doctors each year.” Are there efficient and practical ways to reduce the rate of medical error? Should doctors be solely responsible for their errors? What sort of legal protection should doctors be entitled to?
【提點】考生須針對「如何減少醫療疏失 (medical errors)」、「醫師是否該對自己的疏失負完全責任」及「醫師該得到哪種法律保障」等議題提出看法。以下提供兩篇觀點不盡相同的範文做為參考。
■ Essay 1 (Lower Score / 197 words)
We all make mistakes, but because medical mistakes can be so serious, doctors have created standardized procedures and systems to help them reduce the rate of medical error. Since we can’t make people more perfect, we have to continually improve our procedures and systems.
All medical students learn the standard procedures for diagnosing and treating health problems, but because research is always being done, doctors must work hard to learn about new recommendations.
One system we can use better is the National Health Insurance system. Data scientists can use it to search for ineffective doctors. If a doctor’s patients often immediately visit another doctor and receive a different treatment, then there might be a problem. But this research should be done in private. Otherwise, doctors may be unwilling to admit their mistakes, which would increase the rate of medical error.
Also, there must be a limit to how much money a patient can get from a doctor who has made a medical error. If doctors don’t have this legal protection, they will be afraid to follow their training. They might order unnecessary tests just to “be safe” or try to refer some difficult cases to other doctors.
★ 本篇文章共 197 字（略少於規定的 200 字）以四個段落呈現。作者雖然有針對個別議題提出意見，但整篇文章的架構略嫌鬆散。若能將內容稍做整合並提出結論，應可獲得不錯的分數。
■ Essay 2 (Higher Score / 265 words)
The human consequences of a misdiagnosis, surgical blunder, or other medical error are so grave that we must make every effort to identify the problems that give rise them. To this end, a transparent, data-driven system for tracking medical errors and complications can lead to better outcomes for both doctors and patients.
There is no question that doctors must be held responsible for their errors. I would further argue that they should be held publicly accountable through an online database that provides information about their performance. For example, a patient searching for a surgeon would find information about how often he or she has performed a particular procedure and how often the surgeon’s patients suffered complications. Data would come from legally mandated doctor and hospital disclosure, successful malpractice suits, and objective measures such as the lengths of patient hospital stays and the frequency of post-surgical readmissions.
Used together with other methods of medical harm reduction, such as improved checklists and better case review procedures, such a system would provide doctors and hospitals with an additional incentive to reduce errors. Administrators could create individualized strategies to assist those doctors whose patients suffered an abnormal number of complications. More importantly, global patterns would begin to emerge. Which errors are the most common? Which are the most severe? With this data, evidence-based strategies—from additional training to revised procedures—could be more effectively devised and implemented.
While making one’s mistakes available for public consumption is painful for the individuals involved, it would also be an invaluable occasion for medical professionals to reevaluate and improve their training and treatment.
★ 本篇文章共 265 字，同樣以四段呈現。本文作者明顯較注重全文架構：第一段為 Introduction，第二及第三段為 Discussion，第四段則做 Conclusion。換句話說，作者是以「論說」的方式來回應題目的要求，而不像第一篇文章僅止於「回答」問題。因此，本文肯定能獲得高分。