Please read the following chart/excerpts/passages closely and then choose the best answer for each of the questions according to the contents.
Medicom (sales in thousands)
41. According to the chart, in which period did the sales plummet most dramatically?
(A) January ~ February
(B) April ~ May
(C) June ~ July
(D) September ~ October
(E) October ~ November
For many people, certain fiction books have a special meaning. A story that a person read when they were young, for example, can make them nostalgic for their childhood. But why should people read them? To people who enjoy reading fiction books may simply find them irresistible. On the contrary, people who are not interested in fiction may find it monotonous and boring, or they feel the formal language of literature is unintelligible. Many people prefer reading nonfiction or the news because the language is more straightforward and easier to understand. However, some researchers believe they have found definitive proof that reading fiction is actually beneficial for the human brain. A research team at the University of Toronto led by Professor Maja Kjikic, for example, found that people who read literary fiction become more open-minded and creative in their thinking, and are also better able to deal with uncertainty.
42. People who do not appreciate fiction think ______.
(A) fiction reading is illegible and literature language is humdrum
(B) fiction reading is humdrum and literature language is incomprehensible
(C) both fiction reading and literature language are difficult
(D) neither fiction reading or literature language is critical
(E) fiction reading is incomprehensible and literature language is humdrum
43. Based on the researches, people who enjoy reading fiction might ______.
(A) deal carefully with abstract task
(B) develop a mind of better tolerance and work effectively under ambiguity
(C) monitor carefully about uncertainty
(D) think critically before taking action
(E) read decisively to avoid disastrous consequences
Distinguishing between which kind of stress we feel can sometimes be tricky. Stress is sometimes meant to benefit us, but this does not always happen. Some students find that the stress from taking tests enhances their performance, while others find that test taking makes them forget everything they know. Psychologists note that the type of stress we feel is also tied to the kind of personality we have – Type A or Type B. People with Type A personality frequently feel distress. They tend to be very competitive and often labeled “workaholics” because they devote so much time and energy to their work in order to ensure their success. Unfortunately, focusing much on work and deadlines can make them feel excessive amount of distress. Because they are naturally more impatient and uptight, the distress Type A people feel comes predominantly from themselves. People of Type B are exact opposite: more relaxed and easygoing. Instead of being upset when sitting in traffic jam, people of Type B would not let the situation control how he or she feels. They find it easier to adapt to change. They are able to deal with stress in a more positive and effective way, which results in their experiencing more eustress than distress.
44. Which is the best title for the essay above?
(A) Personality and Stress: Classification and Correlation
(B) Personality and Stress: Performance and Enhancement
(C) Personality and Stress: Distress and Eustress
(D) The Influence of Personality on Stress
(E) Personality: Typology
45. Based on the reading above, which of the following statement is correct?
(A) Stress is always beneficial to us.
(B) Type B people tend to devote time and energy to their work.
(C) The stress Type A people experience results mainly from themselves.
(D) People of Type B often have difficulty in adapting to uncertainty.
(E) Type B people tend to think negatively, which results in their experiencing constant distress.
Millie is a petite woman who looks younger than her 57 years, but she has a failing heart. Even the smallest amount of physical exertion causes shortness of breath and other symptoms such as arm pain, so her cardiologists brought in the 47 care team.
The team was asked to help manage Millie’s pain and other symptoms and to help her grapple with the knowledge that her heart was losing its ability to pump strongly enough. They were also asked to help her with decision-making.
Millie could go home on her intravenous medication, but neither her son nor her daughter was going to be able to accommodate her needs. This is a common scenario in today’s families, so the medical care team had to move to plan B – a nursing home. But no nursing home could be found that would accept a patient on this type of medication. What came next? Next, was plan C – living in the hospital.
Millie is now living in the hospital and receiving her medications. With Plan C in operation, the palliative care team has continued to help Millie feel as comfortable as possible and experience the best possible quality of life. This included providing the services of a massage therapist and transforming her hospital room with a beach motif so Millie could feel the freedom that the sea and sand always gave her. With the help of palliative care even her appetite improved! One day Millie said, “I would love some grilled salmon and rice. And if you can find some sugar-free ice cream, that would just be delightful.”
46. What is the major problem that Millie suffers from?
(A) being rejected by her family
(B) heart failure
(C) bad appetite
(D) heavily relying on sugar
(E) compelled to live by the sea
47. What is the most appropriate word for the blank in the first paragraph?
48. What is the major improvement achieved by the medical team?
(A) recovery from the illnesses
(B) sustaining her life quality
(C) improving her living environment
(D) her union with her family
(E) discharging her from nursing home
49. What is the synonym of the word exertion in the first paragraph?
More than 3 million years ago, when “Lucy” was roaming the savannah of present-day Ethiopia, she may have encountered other two-legged apes not unlike her own species, Australopithecus afarensis—yet still just a wee bit strange.
Represented by jawbones from three individuals, a newly described species named Australopithecus deyrimeda adds to the scatter of evidence that not one, but a range of hominin species populated the East African landscape before 3 million years ago. This could imply they were able to carve out separate niches in a stable environment based on differences in diet, foraging strategies and other behaviors.
“We don’t know enough yet to say anything about the nature of interaction or ecological differences between A. afarensis and A. deyiremeda,” says Stephanie Melillo of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. “We have to first know how to tell the two species apart from their fossil remains, and that is what this paper was all about.”
Reported Wednesday in Nature, the new specimens—a partial upper jaw, two lower jaws, and some other fragments—were found at Burtele, in the Afar Triangle of Ethiopia, just a day’s walk from Hadar, where Lucy was found in 1974. Sediments surrounding the bones were dated to 3.3 and 3.5 million years ago, a time when A. afarensis is well known to have inhabited the region. While the new jaws share some characteristics with Lucy’s species, they differ in other respects. Some of the teeth have different root structures, and in general are smaller than A. afarensis teeth, a trait that could indicate a shift in diet.
“Smaller teeth are often associated with a more meaty diet,” says Fred Spoor of University College London and the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. “And the chewing muscles have migrated forward, which suggests a redistribution of chewing forces of some sort.”
The species name, A. deyrimeda, derives from the local words for “close” (deyi) and “relative” (remeda)—signaling the species close relationship with other hominins. But the similarities only go so far.
“We are convinced that it is different from A. afarensis. All of the evidence—published and unpublished—that we have from the localities at Burtele support our conclusion,” says study author Yohannes Haile-Selassie of the Cleveland Museum of Natural History. He notes that folding the new specimens into A. afarensis would introduce an extremely unusual amount of physical variation into the existing species.
Still, “the distinctions are very, very subtle,” says paleoanthropologist Bill Kimbel of the Institute of Human Origins. “I think the authors have done a very nice job in analyzing the material, but I think it’s a judgment call as to whether you think the differences amount to a species-level difference.”
A. afarensis remains by far the most conspicuous hominin in the fossil record of East Africa 3 to 4 million years ago, during a period known as the Middle Pliocene. But in the last two decades, scientists have named several others, including Australopithecus bahrelghazali from Chad, and Kenyanthropus platyops from Kenya. A. deyrimeda further swells the crowd.
“There is now incontrovertible evidence to show that multiple hominins existed contemporaneously in eastern Africa during the Middle Pliocene,” the authors write.
Of special interest are some enigmatic foot bones of a hominin recovered in 2009 very close to where A. deyiremeda was unearthed. The bones suggest a creature with a flexible foot and big toe capable of grasping objects, similar to a more primitive hominin called Ardipithecus ramidus, dated to 4.4 million years ago.
But perplexingly, the foot bones at Burtele date back to just 3.4 million years ago: the same time period as A. deyiremeda. It’s a combination of proximity in both space and time that cannot be ignored, Kimbel says.
“Figuring out whether or not that very primitive foot is the same critter as the clear australopithecine teeth and jaws that are being described now is of utmost importance,” Kimbel says. “It would mean that you could have australopithecus-like
heads with more diverse options for locomotion – which is not a picture we have painted so far.”
50. How many hominins reside in the eastern African before 3 million years ago?
(C) more than two
(E) The answer is still controvertible.
詳解：本題為細節題，問距今三百萬年之前在東非有多少種「原始人類」(hominins)。本文第二段第一句中明白指出 … not one, but a range of hominin species populated the East African landscape before 3 million years ago.「……不是一種，而是有各種原始人類於距今三百萬年前居住在東非的土地上。」，故本題應選 (C) more than two「超過兩種」。
51. The name given to the newly discovered species is ______.
(A) Australopithecus afarensis
(B) Australopithecus deyrimeda
(C) Australopithecus bahrelghazali
(D) Kenyanthropus platyops
(E) Ardipithecus ramidus
詳解：本題亦為細節題，問新發現的原始人類被稱為什麼。本文第二段第一句清楚提到 … a newly described species named Australopithecus deyrimeda …「一種新近被描繪的原始人類叫做 Australopithecus deyrimeda …」，因此正確答案為 (B)。
52. According to the article, the newly discovered species might ingest more ______ than Lucy’s species.
詳解：本題問的同樣為細節。依本文第四段對於新發現之原始人類的敘述 Some of the teeth … are smaller …「有些牙齒……比較小……」以及第五段第一句說的 Smaller teeth are often associated with more meaty diet …「較小的牙齒常被與食物中含較多的肉做聯結……」可斷定，新發現的原始人類攝取 (ingest) 較多的肉。正確答案為 (E) meat。
53. The word, deyrimeda, derives from the local words for “close” (deyi) and “relative” (remeda). Therefore, deyrimeda is a word made by ______.
詳解：本文第六段提到 deyrimeda 乃由指 close「近的」deyi 加上指 relative「親戚的」的 remeda 而來，而這樣將兩個部分組合成一個字就叫 compounding。正確答案為 (A)。
54. In the ninth paragraph, the word “conspicuous” may be replaced by ______.
詳解：本題為單字題，問第九段中的 conspicuous 可用哪一個字取代。conspicuous乃由字首 con-（原指 together，在此做「強化詞」用）加上字根 -spicu-（指 look）再加形容詞結尾 -ous 而來，意思是「醒目的」。五個選項單字中以 (A) noticeable「顯著的」與其意最接近，故為正確答案。選項 (B) intelligent「有聰明才智的」、(C) prosperous「繁榮昌盛的」、(D) ferocious「凶猛殘忍的」及 (E) sentimental「多愁善感的」皆與 conspicuous 相去甚遠。
55. Australopithecus is more like ______.
詳解：本題屬推論題，問 Australopithecus 比較像五個選項中的何者。本文主要在推論東非一些重要化石的發現，這些化石可以證明人類乃是由猿猴進化而來，而考古學家將這些關鍵的化石稱為 Australopithecus。由文中的討論可以確定，Australopithecus 指的並非 (A) monkeys「猴子」或 (B) apes「猿」，也不是 (D) humans「人類」，而應該是介於現代人類和猿猴之間的 (C) ape-men「猿人」。至於選項 (E) aliens「外星人」則與本文毫不相干。