國考英文作文類型-議論文

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出處:國家考試英文寫作特輯 Part I

編按:英文作文可約略分為議論文、解說文、敘述文和描寫文 。本文要說明議論文的寫法。

議論文(Argument)的寫法:

議論文是寫作中最常命題的類型,行文下筆中可窺探作者的語文能力、邏輯推理、旁徵博引(example),以及咄咄逼人的論理辯才,更是考官藉以臆測行文者之內涵的有效文體。

議論文必須有完整流暢的組織、清楚合理的邏輯,並佐以足以令人信服的證據實例,以達成說服或說理,將自我理念表達的文體。文字之運用選擇,綿密相接之語氣是文章之表面,而清晰的說理是互為表裡的說服能力,嚴密的組織更需具有推銷自我的形式。

文章的說理要按以下幾個步驟申論出來:

步驟1:清楚陳述主題theme、topic sentence) ,與 central ideas 並排於首段,以限定主題與自我理念。

步驟2:再以二、三、或四段(端賴 central ideas 所提供之說理項目) 的支持句以推理Reasoning)方式,將前因後果以演繹或歸納的方法以適當文字表達出來。

步驟3:再加以實例example) ,證實自己理念之正確性。

以高考三等 99 年考題為例: The US President Obama’s Inauguration 。讀者或考生平時需詳讀報紙之社論以培養國際宏觀,並將社論中的用字遣詞,以及理念想法收集以備己用。換句話說,寫筆記是學習議論文最簡單的第一步(take notes)。平時閱讀時便要養成批判閱讀之習慣,將內容大綱化,藉此釐清文章之思路,之後再加以重新組織(reorganize) ,形成該文之概要(epitome) 。若同意該文之想法,則可以消化文章並形成自己的理念。若相悖,則棄之,或若能力充實後,可以寫一篇反對的文章。

 

議論文的範例:

我們把 Obama 之就職演說先分析成大綱,一起討論!

Topic sentence:第二段的 We the people have remained faithful to the ideals of our forebears, and true to our founding document.(強調對國家之信念。)

Central ideas:第三段的 Our nation is at war, against a far-reaching network of violence and hatred. Our economy is badly weakened, a consequence of greed and irresponsibility… we gather because we have chosen hope over fear, unity of purpose over conflict and discord.(指出對抗外來的 1、暴力攻擊,以及內部的 2、經濟衰退。)

而後在每個連接而來的段落裡,以例子-據聖經所示(in the words of scripture),要求群眾 reaffirm our enduring spirit ,便能 all deserve a chance to pursue their full measure of happiness.(有權利追求幸福),以重申主題(對國家之信念) ,並說 It must be earned.(一定要將夢想實現) ,而後重述 1、經濟之振衰起弊是目前最重要的工作(central ideas 之內容) 。

他說 There is work to be done. The state of the economy calls for action, bold and swift, and we will act. 接下來便將醫療、科技、教育一一列出,做為經濟回春的仙丹妙藥。再以對比(contrast) 痛斥有些人的漫罵批評。

緊跟著經濟之陳述後,便是2、暴力,力陳國防之重要。他說 Know that America is a friend of each nation and every man, woman and child who seeks future of peace and dignity, and that we are ready to lead once more. 而後便譴責 fascism 和 communism 之錯誤與 terrorism 之無知,重申 Our spirit is stronger and cannot be broken; you cannot outlast us and we will defeat you.

結論更以主題(信心) &中心(暴力與經濟) 之論述,強化堅定之想法。他說 “What is required of us now is a new era of responsibility … came forth to meet [it].” 來要求群眾 It is ultimately the faith and determination of the American people upon which this nation relies.

因此我們的作文,先將內容與大綱整理後,寫出我們自己的主題句與中心思想句與首段(主題: faith / 中心:暴力與經濟)

主題句 :

President Obama affirms the American faith to struggle against whatever lies ahead in his inauguration speech. Central ideas: He claims that he will fight against all the violent behaviors from terrorism and rejuvenate American economy which is now suffocating Americans’ progress.

第二段:暴力

Terrorism, which prevails in the now era we are surviving, should be quenched, President Obama points out. And the ultimate goal is to build a harmonious and concord world with peace and love.(做為 statement)

第三段:經濟

Concerned with the economic depression, President Obama claims to fight with the recession by improving education, reducing medical costs and creating job opportunities, so that Americans can revive their economy.

結論:提 suggestion 運用於自身

In short, Obama draws a plan which can be a model for us to emulate and find a way out for our constructing a brand new economic environment and a peaceful milieu in Taiwan .

 

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