國考英文作文類型-解說文

 

編按:英文作文可約略分為議論文、解說文、敘述文和描寫文 。本文要說明解說文的寫法。

解說文(Exposition)的寫法:

解說文的目的在於藉由舉例或陳述理由、方法,明確一個流程,須詳細列出細節,依因果、時間先後、前後步驟將事物澄清,或使讀者知道方法。本篇以陸以正大使在「造像十帖」中,描述美濃油紙傘之製作方法為例,說明解說文的寫作技巧。陸以正先生以精彩的內容,精準的用字,以及栩栩如生的陳述,精采介紹了台灣民俗技藝製作之精巧與辛苦。句末還陳述一股淡淡幽鬱,描述技藝之傳承的艱辛與無奈。

 

解說文(Exposition)的寫法:

首段先將主題點出:

… their parents must have invested their life’s work and devotion in them. For scores of years, they have stamped the words “made by Guan Jin Sheng(廣進興)," which is the name of their stores, onto the finished product. The village of Mei-nung(美濃) became famous for these oil-paper umbrellas.(主題句段落,道出老夫婦一生之心血投入美濃紙傘製作之辛勞。)

第二段之一開始,便是 statement:

“It was hard and exacting work." 先敘述製作之流程是辛苦的,然後便開始了 Step-by-step 之陳述。

First , they had to remove the skin of the bamboo, soaked for a period of time to make their texture even tougher.(首先,先削竹去皮,浸泡一陣子,使質地更堅硬。 )

Then , the bamboo must be cut into narrow strips to serve as ribs, with holes drilled through them…(然後,削成細條狀,充做傘骨,再鑽幾個洞在上面。 )

The wood blocks that were cut needed to be planed, sanded and more holes drilled through them to serve as the top of the umbrella.(切下之木塊,先刨平,磨砂,再鑽幾個洞做為傘頂之用。 )

The toughest part of their job was the assembling of the umbrella. When more than 30 ribs had been anchored securely in the top, each rib must be tied intricately to the next, forming the web that would hold the umbrella perfectly together whether opened or closed.(最難的部份是組合紙傘。 30 支的傘骨固定於頂部,精緻的與另一支結合了起來,形成傘網,讓紙傘精準的開啟。 )

Then , they need to cut the cotton paper to fit the pattern, (to) apply the first layer of tung oil on both sides of the paper in the way only seasoned and meticulous artisans knew how to do.(然後,紙傘成型,敷上第一層桐油。 )

The papers were pasted onto the rib of the umbrella, and smoothed out with a brush.(紙傘糊在傘骨後,再用刷子抹平。 )

Only after the end product had taken shape, would another layer of tung oil be applied inside and out, to make the paper umbrella water-proof.(產品雛型稍成,內外再加一層桐油,紙傘便完全防水。 )

這整個製傘過程,陸以正先生逐步、按部就班的介紹出來。

其實在考作文時,可藉由此方法一一陳述,例如 100 年新聞人員特考的題目「你欣賞的人物及其二、三項特質」,既可依這種方式寫作。讀者不妨自己先寫看看,再點開下面的範例參考。

範例
I admire __________ very much, because intelligence, a good sense of humor and reliance are all his/her characteristics, which are also the prerequisite associated with a great hero in my mind.

接下來便可一一陳述 intelligence, humor 以及 reliance 。

 

出處:登峰美語-國家考試英文寫作特輯 Part II

 

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