國考英文作文類型-敘述文

文敘述文(Narration)的寫法:

簡單的說,述說一連串發生的事件,便是敘述文。重點在於描述人、地、事物。常見於報章雜誌之報導、日記、小說與傳記。重要的是必須按照時間先後次序,或以倒敘法陳述。對台灣的學生而言,最難掌握的就是時態的變化:現在式與現在完成式之先後關係,過去式與過去完成式絕不是「已經」兩個字可以一語道盡的。

以海倫凱勒的自傳為例:

I felt approaching footsteps. I started out my hand as I supposed to my mother. Someone took it, and I was caught up and held close in the arms of her who had come to reveal all things to me, and more than all things else, to love me.

這裡的 had come 發生在 I felt 的動作之前,用過去完成式,是中文沒有的。 又例如,「昨天小偷大搖大擺走進她家,有人忘了鎖門。」在這個句子中,「有人忘了鎖門」發生在「小偷進她家」之前。知道要用過去完成式的考生,應該是最細心的!

因此, 100 年四等考試的 News Stories ,這樣典型的敘述文寫法,平常在閱讀報紙時,先以中英對照的方式,明瞭其意,分析其敘述時間與因果邏輯、察其用字遣詞、句法之變化,而後吸收其精華,盡為己用,並挑揀其最饒富意義,引人入勝的故事,作為答題前的準備。平常多注意重要新聞,並加記憶,千萬要記得,蒐集資料是所有寫作技巧的第一個基本功

 

我們再看美國總統柯林頓的演講詞,本篇收錄於 William Safire 的 Lend Me Your Ears: Great Speeches in History. P.538-544 。原文如下:

The other day the Mayor of Baltimore, a dear friend of mine, told me a story of visiting the family of a young man who had been killed – 18 years old, on Halloween. He always went out with little bitty kids so they could trick-or-treat safely. And across the street from where they were walking on Halloween, a 14-year-old boy gave a 13-year-old boy a gun and dared him to shoot the 18-year-old boy, and he shot him dead. And the Mayor had to visit the family.

這段文字可分成三個部分:

一、劈頭就切入主題十八歲大的孩子被殺了

The other day the mayor of Baltimore, Kurt Schmoke, a dear friend of mine, told me a story of visiting the family of a young man who had been killed – eighteen years old – on Halloween.

這個故事的主題是「一個 18 歲大的孩子被殺了」。至於 who had been killed 的過去完成式,是台灣學生最容易疏忽的「時態」。

二、其次敘述故事發生的前因後果

He always went out with little bitty kids so they could trick-or-treat safely. And across the street from where they were walking on Halloween, a fourteen-year-old boy gave a thirteen-year-old a gun and dared him to shoot the eighteen-year-old boy, and he shot him dead.(一個 14 歲男孩給另一個 13 歲男孩一把槍,問他敢不敢開槍射殺那位 18 歲男孩。結果,這個 18 歲的孩子就這樣被殺害了。)

三、事發後的狀況

the mayor had to visit the family。

本篇言簡意賅,一語道盡美國社會槍枝濫用的問題。

 

所以,100 年的考試題目 “New Stories” 要以這樣的模式準備:

步驟1:閱讀新聞故事後,擷取其用字、句型。

步驟2:佐以自我的組織結構。

因此,可先在首段鋪陳聳動驚人的主題,第二段陳述故事發生之因果;第三段做為反省,如 Clinton 在文章末段所說:

“We will turn this around. We will give these children a future. We will take away their guns and give them books. We will take away their despair and give them hope.” 。

 

出處:登峰美語-國家考試英文寫作特輯 Part III

 

Summary
國考英文作文類型-敘述文
Article Name
國考英文作文類型-敘述文
Description
英文作文可約略分為議論文、解說文、敘述文和描寫文 。本文要說明敘述文的寫法。
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貝塔英語
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